The Clinicial Research in Spine Pain, or C.R.I.S.P., Protocols were developed by Dr. Donald Murphy, D.C., of Brown University's Alpert School of Medicine. These protocols have been developed as what is known as an algorithm, or flow chart, to guide the diagnosis and treatment of spine related disorders. The spinal tissues which can cause pain are the discs, joints, nerves, and muscles. They are diagnosed by how they respond to certain tests. These pain generators can be perpetuated by three types of things: dynamic instability, a sensitized nervous system, and psychological factors.